চুরি ও ডাকাতি কি ?
দন্ডবিধির ৩৭৮ ধারা অনুযায়ী চুরি হল:
ক) সম্পত্তিটি অস্থাবর হবে
খ) তা অন্য ব্যক্তির দখলে ছিল
গ) উক্ত ব্যক্তির সম্মতি ব্যতিরেকে উক্ত সম্পত্তি স্থানান্তর করা হয়েছিল
ঘ) অভিযুক্ত ব্যক্তির উদ্দেশ্য ছিল উক্ত সম্পত্তি অসাধুভাবে গ্রহন করা।
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person’s consent, moves that property in order to such taking, is said to commit theft.
Explanation 1.-A thing so long as it is attached to the earth, not being moveable property, is not the subject of theft; but it becomes capable of being the subject of theft as soon as it is severed from the earth.
Explanation 2.-A moving effected by the same act which effects the severance may be a theft.
Explanation 3.-A person is said to cause a thing to move by removing an obstacle which prevented it from moving or by separating it from any other thing, as well as by actually moving it.
Explanation 4.-A person, who by any means causes an animal to move, is said to move that animal, and to move everything which, in consequence of the motion so caused, is moved by that animal.
Explanation 5.-The consent mentioned in the definition may be express or implied, and may be given either by the person in possession, or by any person having for that purpose authority either express or implied.
(a) A cuts down a tree on Z’s ground, with the intention of dishonestly taking the tree out of Z’s possession without Z’s consent. Here, as soon as A has severed the tree in order to such taking, he has committed theft.
(b) A puts a bait for dogs in his pocket, and thus induces Z’s dog to follow it. Here, if A’s intention be dishonestly to take the dog out of Z’s possession without Z’s consent, A has committed theft as soon as Z’s dog has begun to follow A.
(c) A meets a bullock carrying a box of treasure. He drives the bullock in a certain direction, in order that he may dishonestly take the treasure. As soon as the bullock begins to move, A has committed theft of the treasure.
(d) A being Z’s servant, and entrusted by Z with the care of Z’s plate, dishonestly runs away with the plate, without Z’s consent. A has committed theft.
(e) Z, going on a journey, entrusts his plate to A, the keeper of a warehouse, till Z shall return. A carries the plate to a goldsmith and sells it. Here the plate was not in Z’s possession. It could not therefore be taken out of Z’s possession, and A has not committed theft, though he may have committed criminal breach of trust.
(f) A finds a ring belonging to Z on a table in the house which Z occupies. Here the ring is in Z’s possession, and if A dishonestly removes it, A commits theft.
(g) A finds a ring lying on the high-road, not in the possession of any person. A, by taking it, commits no theft, though he may commit criminal misappropriation of property.
(h) A sees a ring belonging to Z lying on a table in Z’s house. Not venturing to misappropriate the ring immediately for fear of search and detection, A hides the ring in a place where it is highly improbable that it will ever be found by Z, with the intention of taking the ring from the hiding place and selling it when the loss is forgotten. Here A, at the time of first moving the ring, commits theft.
(i) A delivers his watch to Z, a jeweler, to be regulated. Z carries it to his shop. A, not owing to the jeweler any debt for which the jeweler might lawfully detain the watch as a security, enters the shop openly, takes his watch by force out of Z’s hand, and carries it away. Here A, though he may have committed criminal trespass and assault, has not committed theft, inasmuch as what he did was not done dishonestly.
(j) If A owes money to Z for repairing the watch, and if Z retains the watch lawfully as a security for the debt, and A takes the watch out of Z’s possession, with the intention of depriving Z of the property as a security for his debt, he commits theft, inasmuch as he takes it dishonestly.
(k) Again, if A, having pawned his watch to Z, takes it out of Z’s possession without Z’s consent, not having paid what he borrowed on the watch, he commits theft, though the watch is his own property inasmuch as he takes it dishonestly.
(l) A takes an article belonging to Z out of Z’s possession without Z’s consent, with the intention of keeping it until he obtains money from Z as a reward for its restoration. Here A takes dishonestly; A has therefore committed theft.
(m) A, being on friendly terms with Z, goes into Z’s library in Z’s absence, and takes away a book without Z’s express consent for the purpose merely of reading it, and with the intention of returning it. Here, it is probable that A may have conceived that he had Z’s implied consent to use Z’s book. If this was A’s impression, A has not committed theft.
(n) A asks charity from Z’s wife. She gives A money, food and clothes, which A knows to belong to Z her husband. Here it is probable that A may conceive that Z’s wife is authorized to give away alms. If this was A’s impression, A has not committed theft.
(o) A is the paramour of Z’s wife. She gives A valuable property, which A knows to belong to her husband Z, and to be such property as she has not authority from Z to give. If A takes the property dishonestly, he commits theft.
(p) A, in good faith, believing property belonging to Z to be A’s own property, takes that property out of B’s possession. Here, as A does not take dishonestly, he does not commit theft.
শাস্তিঃ দন্ডবিধি এর ৩৭৯ অনুযায়ী চুরির শাস্তি নিম্নরূপ
ক) তিন বছর পর্যন্ত কারাদন্ড বা
খ) জরিমানা বা
গ) উভয় দন্ড
|379. Punishment for theft||
Whoever commits theft shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
দন্ডবিধির এর ৩৯১ ধারা অনুযায়ী ডাকাতি হল:
ক) পাঁচ বা ততোধিক ব্যক্তি কর্তৃক দস্যুতা (ডাকাতি) করার জন্য উদ্যোগ নেওয়া বা
খ) দস্যুতায় উপস্থিত হওয়া বা উদ্যোগে সাহায্যকারী ব্যক্তির সংখ্যা যদি পাঁচ বা ততোধিক হয় (তখন এদের প্রত্যেকে ডাকাতি করতে এসেছে বলে ধরা হয়)
When five or more persons conjointly commit or attempt to commit a robbery, or where the whole number of persons conjointly committing or attempting to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit “dacoity”.
শাস্তিঃ দন্ডবিধি ৩৯৫ অনুযায়ী শাস্তি নিম্নরূপ
ক) যাবজ্জীবন কারাদন্ড বা
খ) সশ্রম কারাদন্ড ১০ বছর পর্যন্ত এবং অর্থদন্ড
|395. Punishment for dacoity||
Whoever commits dacoity shall be punished with 2[ imprisonment] for life, or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.